Cards and Definitions

As there are several, several versions out there, find one that resonates with you, use it, and don't worry about whether somebody else is using a different system or not. The card definitions I have listed here will be separated into three categories: tarot, cartomancy, and piquet cartomancy.

Tarot Definitions
Tarot decks consist of 78 cards. There are 54 minor arcana cards, which are the same cards of a standard playing card deck plus a Page for each suit, and there are 22 major arcana cards numbered 0 to 21. Some tarot decks will have a unique set of definitions that are provided with them. Listed below are the most common definitions known as were laid out by Arthur Edward Waite in his book Pictorial Key to the Tarot published in 1911.
Cartomancy Definitions
Cartomancy decks are the standard deck of 52 playing cards. Listed below are the definitions as given by Auntie Tarot.
Other definition sets:
Piquet Cartomancy Definitions
Piquet decks consists of 32 cards from a standard playing card deck; the 7s, 8s, 9s, 10s, Jacks, Queens, Kings, and Aces of each suit. Cards 2 through 6 of the deck are removed.

Oracle cards vary in number between decks and tend to have their own reading systems that come with each deck. As they are so varied, I will not be listing any of their definitions here.

The common order of the suits...
♥ ♣ ♦ ♠ — Most Common
♣ ♦ ♥ ♠ — 19th Century
♦ ♥ ♣ ♠ — 20th Century
♣ ♥ ♦ ♠ — Tarot (Wands, Cups, Pentacles, Swords)
♠ ♣ ♦ ♥ — Modern Games
♠ ♥ ♣ ♦ — Modern Games

While three of the suits are placed in any position, the final position is often reserved for Spades due to its ominous and foreboding meanings.

Why did you list Swords as third instead of fourth?

Because of the elemental associations of the cards and zodiac.

Wands are fire based. The fire signs are Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius. Aries heralds in the first season, spring, thus Wands also belongs to spring.
Cups are water based. The water signs are Cancer, Scorpio, and Pisces. Cancer heralds in the second season, summer, thus Cups also belongs to summer.
Swords are air based. The air signs are Gemini, Libra, and Aquarius. Libra heralds in the third season, autumn, thus Swords also belongs to autumn. Some places attribute Swords to winter. Likely because Swords brings a lot of hardships and winter is the harshest season for most to live through.
Pentacles are earth based. The earth signs are Taurus, Virgo, and Capricorn. Capricorn heralds in the fourth season, winter, thus Pentacles also belongs to winter.

Card Associations

Clubs Hearts Spades Diamonds
Names Clubs (Bastoni, Bastos)
Clovers (Trèfles)
Eichel (Acorn)
Hearts (Cœurs, Herz, Srdce)
Cups (Coppe, Copas)
Roses (Rosen)
Spades (Piques)
Swords (Spade, Espadas)
Leaves (Laub, Listy)
Green (Zöld, Zelené)
Shields (Schilten)
Coins (Denari, Oros)
Bells (Schellen)
Pumpkins (Tök)
Balls (Kule)
Element Fire Water Air Earth
Zodiac Aries, Leo, Sagittarius Cancer, Scorpio, Pisces Gemini, Libra, Aquarius Taurus, Virgo, Capricorn
Season Spring Summer Autumn Winter
Months March, April, May June, July, August September, October, November December, January, February
Time of Day Morning Noon Evening Night
Life Stage Youth Adolescence Adulthood Elder
Colouring Brown Eyes, Brown Hair, Medium Complexion Blue or Grey Eyes, Blonde Hair, Fair Complexion Dark Brown or Black Eyes, Black Hair, Dark Complexion Blue or Grey Eyes, Auburn Hair, Fair Complexion
Feudal Social Class Fourth Estate, Rural — Peasantry, farmers, laborers. Yeoman, Tiller of the soil. Thus, also simplicity, nature, poverty, and submission. First Estate — Clergy. Priests and Rulers. Thus, also spirituality and religion. Second Estate — Nobility, Military, Burghers (middle class). Warriors. Thus, also strength, power, authority, responsibility, violence, and suffering. Third Estate, Townsfolk — Merchants, Artisans, Burghers. Merchants. Thus, also worldly matters.
Realms Spirit, energy, creativity, will, communication, intuition, interest, fortitude. Work, effort, achievements, business matters, investments, money, power. Trouble, loss, sickness. Soul, emotion, love, pleasure, joy, happiness, memories. Friendship, relationships. The mind, analyzing, logic, messages, challenge, thinking. Justice, problems, disappointments, anxiety, sickness, loss, death, grief, misfortune. The body, home, practicality, material items, possessions, sensation, charity. Business, enterprise, money, riches, success. Journeys, messages. Delay, quarrels, annoyances.